Sunday, January 12, 2020
How does Mr. HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s history with suppliers relate to HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s current supply management strategy? HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s current supply management strategy is consistent with Mr. HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. There three factors about HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s supply management strategy, focus on local market, emphasis on competition and reliable suppliers. According to the HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s export strategy of Ã¢â¬Å"Honda and U.S. Ã¢â¬â Japan Automotive TradeÃ¢â¬ (1997), it is clearly that Honda focuses on regional markets which contributes to developing more sales, strong research and better development. And their strategy of manufacturing the products where or near to where they are sold is the result of their being local strategy. Additionally, focus on local market benefits not only Honda but also the local government. Taking the US market as an example, on one hand, Ã¢â¬Å"HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to global trade and the positive benefits that result for U.S. jobs, suppliers, consumers and exports.Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, when the government benefits from Honda, it is easier for Honda to develop in the future. The other one is that Honda always emphasizes the competition of globalization. And during the intense competition, finding reliable suppliers to ensure and advance the quality of production is very important. Being globalization is the corollary goal if one company wants to make more benefit. And reliable suppliers are of great significance for company. This is the foundation of being on time as well as having good quality. Furthermore, HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers are able to be involved in the development process to give suggestion and have negotiation with Honda. In this way, Honda has access to know how to make it better and faster. Why is purchasing so important at Honda? Purchasing is important to Honda because of its strategy to be globalization. As Honda is a transnational corporation, it is very important to know the different policy, culture and environment in different local places in order to producing saving, managing contracts effectively and maintaining productive supplier relationships. Effective supply chain management depends on material availability, purchase volume, product cost and types of materials. As there thousands of parts in a car, sometimes materials should be bought from all over the world to reduce cost. Purchasing ensures the lowest price with good quality. And with communication as well asÃ negotiation to the suppliers, it is possible to make all the products to be produced on time with lower cost which is very important. Additionally, purchasing takes what kind of contract is the best into consideration which contributes to managing contracts effectively. Due to the different environment in every location, an appropriate type of contract benefits Honda and suppliers at the same time. Furthermore, as mentioned above, Honda pays a lot attention to the relationship with suppliers. One of the important part of purchasing is negotiating with the suppliers. With good negotiation and communication, it not only increases the chance of getting better deal but also contributes to establishing positive relationship with suppliers. How does purchasing rank in the corporate structure at Honda? Purchasing ranks highly in the corporate structure at Honda. It is in charge of local purchasing which decides the local suppliers as well as the global source. Besides, it has the option of adding a second source of supply. How is Honda organized globally? How does this help/hinder the purchasing function at Honda? Honda has lead automotive exporter which increase the buying and selling power for Honda. Honda focus on the localization as well as globalization which neutralizes the effect of currency rate. However, it also causes some problems such as at the beginning it is hard to coordinate between the local and the global. But this problem has been solved when the international purchasing department strengthen its macro-control of the local and global purchasing. Honda is sensitive to international requirements which means it takes advantages as well as create opportunities with local government. Since 1986 the MOSS came out, Honda created thousands of job opportunities in US and in turn it gets a lot benefit. What are the key elements of HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s supplier evaluation policy? How does it differ from others (e.g. the Big Three)? Suppliers are able to be involved in the product development to some degree. Different from others which control everything during purchasing and the suppliers are just responsible for supplying products as what is in the contract, HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers are able to offer advice about enhancing the efficiency which facilitate the cooperation as well as the products. In other words, Honda and its suppliers are mutually-beneficial cooperation rather than Honda just relies on suppliers. Continuous development and responsiveness of suppliers at the early age of product development process is critically important. Ã¢ â¬Å"Honda tries toÃ encourage suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ suggestions early before finalizing drawings, particularly in the area of cost reduction and quality improvement.Ã¢â¬ Honda always tries to maintain relationship with suppliers. It is hard to communicate effectively in HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s four trade zone but Honda always pays attention to it. As Mr. Morita says, Ã¢â¬Å"Honda places value on maintaining relationships, so we do not enter into them lightly.Ã¢â¬ Different from companies which focus on the immediate benefit of low cost rather than long-term benefits of maintaining relationship, Honda values suppliers and tries best to maintain good relationship with suppliers which turns out to be a very economical strategy. Because changing suppliers or having problems with current suppliers always takes a lot of time and money of fix it. What is HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on new product development and supplier involvement? How does it differ from other automotive companies? HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on new product development and supplier involvement includes two pars: Pacific Automotive Cooperative since 1986 and Re-assigned Pacific Automotive Cooperative since 1995. The former one was signed by Japanese and American government which required companies to report all of their import and localization volumes. The latter one consisted of 32 shareholders from joint venture composed of Japanese automakers which was established to meet political objecti ve for production in North America. Both of the policies emphasize on the involvement and cooperation of suppliers. Different from other automotive companies, suppliers of Honda have access to have knowledge of product development process and to offer suggestion which enhance the relationship between Honda and suppliers as well as promote the production efficiency. HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture have always emphasized globalization. Honda cultivated an international background at a very early age resulting in getting along with suppliers well. Conversely, Nissan and Toyota primarily exported vehicles, and did not develop this international culture. Does Honda support local sourcing from domestic suppliers? What are the advantages / disadvantages of this approach? Yes, Honda strongly supports local sourcing from domestic suppliers. Advantages: Firstly, it is easier for Honda to create and develop domestic market with domestic suppliers which understand customer culture and market better than Honda itself. Secondly, domestic suppliers decrease the cost of time andÃ money to distribute and produce. Thirdly, as there may be several domestic suppliers, so Honda has more options to choose the best one. And additionally,, domestic suppliers lower the risk of discontinuousness. Disadvantages: At the beginning of purchasing, domestic suppliers may be lacking in specific raw materials or components. And furthermore, how to adjust the domestic suppliers with global market is very important. HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy and commit to long-term relationships has been criticized as being Ã¢â¬Å"too loyalÃ¢â¬ , and Honda will go to Ã¢â¬Å"ridiculous lengthsÃ¢â¬ to maintain a supplier relationship before severing ties. What do you think about these criticisms? Although HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy is criticized, in my opinion, it is still of great significance. When choosing suppliers, quality of products they supply compared with the cost and delivery fee are the most important factors. If the suppliers were able to satisfy these requirements, there is no need to change suppliers. Additionally, Honda keeps increasing the relationship with suppliers by involving them into the product development process, which benefits both Honda and suppliers. Stable and long-term relationship doesnÃ¢â¬ â¢t equal ridiculous lengths. With efforts, it is one way to increase the quality of suppliers.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Course: The South in World Politics: a Parallel World in the Making? Mission in Burundi: South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s voice of solidarity INTRODUCTION In 1993 Nelson Mandela defined the issue of human rights, respect for diversity, cooperation in regional construction, infrastructure and resource development projects, concerns and interest of the continent of Africa to be the pillars of the foreign policy of South Africa (Mandela 1993). The essay will define what mediation is, what the peace process phases, will briefly describe the essence of the Tutsi-Hutu conflict in Burundi, will demonstrate how South Africa fulfilled its taken Ã¢â¬ËobligationsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Burundi peace mission from 1999-2005 as a mediator, and will conclude when the mediation can be considered successful. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Ã¢â¬Å"Mediation is a process in which a third party attempts to resolve a conflict by fostering an agreement acceptable to both sides, without any prior acceptance or commitment by the parties to the conflict of the mediators ideas or suggestionsÃ¢â¬ (Ayres, 1997). Ã¢â¬Å"Third parties mediate based on their desire to make peace, and their own self-interest. Self-interest is the primary motivation for states. States are motivated by both defensive and offensive interestsÃ¢â¬ (ZartmanTouval 1996). Mediation per se intervention in the long-term Burundi peace process (1993-2005) involved many international actors and had the following milestones: the initial intercession by the UN SpecialShow MoreRelatedNotes18856 Words Ã |Ã 76 PagesColonialism and the African Experience Virtually everything that has gone wrong in Africa since the advent of independence has been blamed on the legacies of colonialism. Is that fair? Virtually all colonial powers had Ã¢â¬Å"colonial missions.Ã¢â¬ What were these missions and why were they apparently such a disaster? Did any good come out of the African Ã¢â¬Å"colonial experienceÃ¢â¬ ? Introduction Colonization of Africa by European countries was a monumental milestone in Ã the development of Africa. The
Friday, December 27, 2019
1) When you developed your research proposal, what did you think Happy DogsÃ¢â¬â¢ research need was? a. What was the problem they faced? What information did you think they needed to address it and improve their HRM practices? In my proposal, I identified minor objectives relating to retention. I then identified that all of these objectives had the verb Ã¢â¬ËidentifyÃ¢â¬â¢ or a synonym of the verb. This led me to the problem of, and research needs relating to Ã¢â¬Ëunknown cause of walker retentionÃ¢â¬â¢. I conveyed the information needed within the problem itself, as the Ã¢â¬ËcauseÃ¢â¬â¢ of walker retention. I believe this information would address the problem, and improve on organisational practices by identifying their current core HR rigidity. b. How did you thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦3) Interpret MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback. a. What does MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback tell you about how you could improve the way you defined Happy DogsÃ¢â¬â¢ research need and the information they need to address their problem? MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback elaborated on my lack of systematic Ã¢â¬Ëwhat, who and howÃ¢â¬â¢ of various aspects, including my definition of Happy DogsÃ¢â¬â¢ research need(s). From my interpretation, I could improve the way I define the problem by incorporating, what the research problems is (and affects), who the research problem impacts (and who can help resolve the problem), and how the research problem can be resolved. b. What does MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback tell you about how you could improve the way you designed or explained your research design to get them the information they need? Implementing an overview of my research design would convey a Ã¢â¬Ëbig pictureÃ¢â¬â¢ to the audience. From my interpretation, I believe if I were to incorporate this into my explanation of my design, it would enable the audience to contextually understand what exactly the research design is, and how it ascertains the desired information; without any later confusion associated with overtly complex rhetoric. 4) Evaluate what you have learned from MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback. If you were presenting your proposal to Megan again, a. What new insights do you now have about defining a research problem and a research need? How would you now explain Happy DogsÃ¢â¬â¢ researchShow MoreRelatedEssay On How To Make Your App A Hit1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow To Make Your App A Hit App development companies find it discouraging that a lot of mobile apps fail even before launching them. Although there is so much competition in the world of enterprise app design services, that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be the reason for the failure of so many mobile apps. It can be demoralizing for providers of app design services to find out that despite the amount of financial and non-financial resources dissipated into the development of some apps, these apps fail to yield the expectedRead MoreFocus Group Design1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof health care sectors. Insufficient data exists to determine qualitatively if we have fulfilled our mission. This qualitative research is intended to answer the following question: Ã¢â¬Å"How well did the UN XXX Program prepare you for the current position you hold in your organization?Ã¢â¬ Although this project is intended to serve as a form of self-contained research, it is conceivable that the results of this project may lead to the creation of additional sources of data such as employer focusRead MoreHow The Design Process Operates When Dealing With Customers1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssignment brief Ã¢â¬â QCF BTEC Assignment 1 front sheet Qualification Unit number and title BTEC Ext Diploma in Electrical Electronic Engineering Unit 08: Engineering Design Learner name Assessor name Westley Broughton Andrew Molyneux Date issued Hand in deadline Submitted on 17/09/2015 Assignment title Investigate how the design process operates when dealing with customers (1) In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria. Indicate theRead Moresurvey master llc Essay1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa position with the largest independent marketing research firm in the United States, and Lopez went to work for Progressive Insurance outside Cleveland as an actuary. At their tenth class reunion in 2003 they met again. Each was somewhat unhappy in their current job, and both wanted to return to the Boston area to live. A casual conversation turned to something more serious as they discussed leaving their jobs to start a marketing research survey consultancy in the Boston area. Survey MastersRead MorePresentation Chapters 3 51422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNicole FiamingoÃ¢â¬â¢s Presentation MKT 730 Ã¢â¬â Marketing Research February 17, Dell Printer: Ã¢â¬Å"The New Kid On The BlockÃ¢â¬ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42mNRePWIME Chapter 3 Research Design Marketing Research Proposal 1. 2. 3. 4. Executive Summary Background Problem Definition Approach to the problem 5. Research Design 6. Fieldwork/ Data Collection 7. 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Through these types of exercises and personal experience you will build an experience base of skills that will help you better manage your own research laboratory. Statement ofRead MoreA.Identify An Area Of Need For Professional Development1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA. Identify an area of need for professional development at your practicum school site. An area of need at Napavine Jr. Sr. High School is the curriculum adoption process. Two years ago, I worked with the English department to adopt the curriculum for grades 6-12. At that time, there was no guidance and no set procedure. Several months ago, the building principal asked me to be the lead for the K-12 music departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum adoption. I am not a music teacher and I have no experience in musicRead MoreMarketing1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVICTORIA UNIVERSITY Case Study 1 (20%) Due Week 5 |BEO 6501 Quantitative Analysis |Semester 2, 2014 | Part A (5) Drink-At-Home, Inc. Drink-At-Home, Inc. (DAH, Inc.), develops, processes, and markets mixes to be used in nonalcoholic cocktails and mixed drinks for home consumption. Mrs. Lee, who is in charge of research and development at DAH, Inc., this morning notified Mr. Dick JonesRead MoreStudent4254 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesThis is the task list for MKT350-1301A-01: Marketing Research Practices Task List | Phase 1 - Introduction to Market Research | | | Reading Task: Burns amp; Bush, Chapters 1-3 | | Task Type: Discussion Board Deliverable Length: 2Ã¢â¬â3 paragraphs Points Possible: 10 Due Date: 1/9/2013 11:59:59 PM CT Reminder: Initial Discussion Board posts due by Wednesday, responses due by SundayStudents will be expected to post their first initial discussion board posting by Wednesday of each
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Throughout many years, the Earth has been a sustainable resource that humans have taken advantage of and been nourished by during evolution. Humans consider one of their main goals to reproduce and populate the Earth. As shown in the graph by World Bank , the world population as of 2013, is estimated to be over 7.1 billion. This is the result of exponential growth from previous years. This massive populations have effects on our resources, causes social problems, overcrowds areas, and effects other species. Earth is hitting the maximum capacity that it can handle. Ã¢â¬Å"Human population is growing like never before. We are now adding one billion people to the planet every 12 years. That s about 220,000 per dayÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Overpopulation: Environmental and Social Problems,Ã¢â¬ para.1). As more people are kept alive and the reproduction trend continues, it results in too many people being on Earth at the same time. This phenomena is referred to as overpopulation, and will be the focus of the paper. Overpopulation is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a population crash.Ã¢â¬ by Merriam-Webster. One of the causes of overpopulation is lower morality rates and advances in medicine. The many technological advances that have been made recently are resulting in doctors and medical facilities to be able to care for people in ways that they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been cared for before causing them to live longer.Show MoreRelatedThe Population Of The Planet Is Reaching Unsustainable1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexpansion in less developed and developing countries is straining the already scarce resources. Overpopulation is the exasperating force behind global warming, environmental pollution, habitat loss, intensive farming practices, and the consumption of finite natural resources, such as fresh water, arable land and fossil fuels, at speeds faster than their rate of regeneration. Also, due to overpopulation, agricultural practices used to produce food necessary to feed the ever growing population, damagesRead MoreOverpopulation Is A Serious Problem1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto the entire world is overpopulation. Overpopulation is a serious problem that is having an extreme effect on the health of every citizen of every country. The problems caused by overpopulation could even prove to be a fatal epidemic to the human population. Oftentimes overpopulation is overlooked due to a lack of knowledge or simply because many government officials have dismissed overpopulation and call it a myth. Overpopulation is an enormous and serious global problem that needs to be takenRead MoreOverpopulation Is a Growing Problem Essay1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOverpopulation is a growing problem all over the world. This is a very important environmental issue and needs to be dealt with. This environmental problem is affecting many countries in the world, but mostly the poor and impoverished countries that donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the resources to help deal with these issues. It also affects the environment like plants animal life and air quality. When the population of people expands we need more natural resources from the environment, so we consume more then we canRead MoreOverpopulation Is A Catastrophe?841 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexperienced enormous changes in the people number. These changes have boomed considerably and have converted to overpopulation. Currently, the global population is 7 billion, and the increase rate is 1.3% annually that means by the end of the twenty-first century the population will reach twelve billion (Keenan, 2013). Therefore, there is a huge debate going on right now regarding overpopulation. For some people, explosion in population has no detrimental impacts in the future, and it will be bearableRead MoreOverpopulation and Over- Consumption in India Essay733 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesbillion people by 2050. What will happen if countries like India keep growing? This issue is known as overpopulation. Overpopulation has become a very prevalent topic in the last ten years and if not controlled, it could affect all countries on earth. Although overpopulation appears to be an insuppressible issue, there are some different ideas and methods that have been used to help this problem. There are a plethora of factors that contribute to the exponential growth in the population in theRead MoreOverpopulation : The Better Or For The Worst?1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOverpopulation: for the better or for the worst? There are currently seven million people inhabiting earth. By 2050, it is predicted that population will reach up to 10.63 billion and by 2300 it is predicted to be 36.44 billion. In less than 300 years, population will grow by more than 30 billion people. The earth is meant to hold about six billion people and since humans have already already exceeded its limit, it is crucial for strong actions to take place in order to prevent overpopulation orRead MoreOverpopulation can be described as the failure of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to sustain the population.1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOverpopulation can be described as the failure of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to sustain the population. The limited natural resources have increased challenges for countries facing this. This paper covers the effects of overpopulation in the world today. The current worlds population is approximately six billion people, and the amount of time that it takes for the population to increase by another billion is decreasing with each billion. It is estimated that they will be about eight billion people byRead MoreOverpopulation Is Not The Problem1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Overpopulation Overpopulation is a prominent controversial topic among society, in which some believe the exponential growth of humanity is detrimental to its future, whereas others conclude this theory is a myth due to human nature and resources. In Isaac AsimovÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Case Against ManÃ¢â¬ , he elucidated the verity of overpopulation, emphasizing that the disproportion of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s carrying capacity and its resources will inevitably lead to humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. Introducing the notion thatRead MoreThe Effects Of Overpopulation On The Human Population1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhole. Overpopulation, the condition where an area holds more people than in which the area can properly function, is a serious issue which has many adverse effects on the well-being of a healthy human population. A growing seven billion people live on Earth and factors such as pollution, and human well being may all be affected by overpopulation, and continued growth in population will cause an even greater impact on society, individuals, and the environment. The effects of overpopulation is a multi-layeredRead MoreOverpopulation Pressures Our Natural Resources and Environment743 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe growing concerns of population are not limited to environmental degradation such as losses of biodiversity, soil depletion, and toxic rivers and oceans. It goes further through the risks it imposes of Ã¢â¬Å"epidemics, resource war, terrorism, and deaths from violent climatic eventsÃ¢â¬ (Ehrlich and Ehrlich 2012). Malthus argued that, people growth respond to wage or income that correlate negatively with the size of population (Lee 2011). On the other hand, climate change correlates positively with increase
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Education Research Perspectives ? Answer : Introducation: Education research refers to scientific study through defined methods for examining the hypothesis and its learning processes through interactions, structure, and framework. The research provides a space for the trans-disciplinary, debates, and peer-reviews on the practice, theory and policy (Punch Oancea, 2014). However, research may be about working towards fairness, justice, and openness in any concept. Education research holds the full spectrum of arduous methods suitable for the questions being asked also helps for the development of new approaches and tools. The research is basically based on two theories viz., problem-solving theory and critical theory (Talbot-Smith, 2013). Importance Research helps to add knowledge to the educators when they undertook research based on the existing information and attempted to fulfil the current knowledge gap. Education research helps in promoting improvement for practice, as equipped research results assist in becoming more capable professionals. It helps the practitioners for evaluation of approaches which will contribute to work with other individuals in educational institutions (Gagnon Bumpus, 2016). Apart from supporting educators in becoming better professionals, it also provides the information to the policy makers during debate and research on educational topics. When policy makers read the research questions, which are related to current discussions and stances taken by the other public officials . Validation Questionnaires often arise in the educational research, which is needed to be validated. Proper validation of the research should be done by collecting the validity evidence for the correctness of the uses, decisions and interpretation of the assessed results. The major constraint towards solving complex problems is the lack of interdisciplinary validity (Gagnon Bumpus, 2016). The steps involved in education research validation includes (1) expert panel review (formative), (2) feasibility of items, (3) field testing, and (4) expert panel review (summative). Note that the methods used can be either original in terms of information elucidation or can be based on secondary research, but the validation process remains same in both measures (Punch Oancea, 2014). Perspectives Perspectives is an important impact factor in the education research field. The increase in views will help to entice more researchers and supports for their publications. The education research involves the opening of newer vision, improved methods, and lesson based on evidence from research reports for increasing the effectiveness in practice (Jose, Patrick Moseley, 2017). Problems Despite its importance, the present research also shows several challenges as the results found shows contradictory findings. Another problem is related to the issue of questionable data, as there is a chance of a dismally small number of participants which can cause a problem in concluding an appropriate statistical result (Jose, Patrick Moseley, 2017). Even if the research published in a good journal does not make sense for good research, until the statistics choose for analysis, the data is appropriate. Conclusion Despite the importance, it is important to note that educational research has a limitation, especially in terms of limited use of research by teachers. The reason is mainly attributed to lack of access to academic journals, a daunting amount of research, overly theoretical orientation, and distrust of findings. Thus, it should be the policy reform approach, with which the educational research and its trend across educational settings can be transformed into a positive direction. References: Gagnon, R. J., Bumpus, M. F. (2016). Fidelity and its importance to experiential and outdoor education.Journal of Outdoor Recreation,8(1), 10-25. Jose, S., Patrick, P. G., Moseley, C. (2017). Experiential learning theory: the importance of outdoor classrooms in environmental education.International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 1-16. Punch, K. F., Oancea, A. (2014).Introduction to research methods in education. Sage. Talbot-Smith, M., Abell, S. K., Appleton, K., Hanuscin, D. L. (Eds.). (2013).Handbook of research on science education. Routledge.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Great Depression THE GREAT DEPRESSION The year of 1929 began a time period of horror in America. It was the beginning of the great depression. A time in which many lost their jobs,became homeless,and went hungry. Many people had to live off the nutrition of weeds or some worked fifty - five hours and only earned seventy - five cents. The cause of the depression was the stock market crash of 1929 known to investors as Black Tuesday. Black Tuesday is said to be the most shocking financial event in the history of the united states. Not only did the stock market prices drop drastically but the business world was brought down with it. Inflation also rose because of the crash. The crash that occurred on October of 1929 caused Americans to lose Thirty billion dollars,and the American dollar value was 90% less than it was prior to October of 1929. Wholesale and retail food prices dropped 40% and farm prices dropped over 60%. About four million families were left unemployed and on relief support only receiving fifteen dollars a month. Because of the crash the government was required to set new regulations regarding stock market trade. The reason for this was to attempt to prevent another stock market crash from happening in the future. The depression brought about many problems not only did people have to worry about unemployment they also had to worry about crime. Many Americans tried to get easy money by taking part in robberies,kidnappings,and murders. In 1935 criminals out numbered carpenters four to one, grocers six to one, and doctors twenty to one. In the mid west, crooks with shot guns and Tommy Gun were a common thing. In large cities the criminals were making money off of extortion,prositution and auto theft. GREAT DEPRESSION TIMELINE 1929 Herbert Hoover became president Stock market crash begins on October 24 investors call October 29 Black Tuesday Losses for the month are sixteen billion congress passes Agricultural Marketing Act to support farmers until they can get on their feet 1930 By February, Federal Reserve cut prime interest rate 6% to 4% The smoot-Hawley Tariff passes on June 17 Democrats gain in congressional elections but still don't have majority The GNP fails 9.4% and unemployment rate climbs 3.2% to 8.7% 1931 A second banking panic occurs in the spring The GNP falls another 8.5% Unemployment rises to 15.9% 1932 This year and next year are the worst of the depression GNP falls a record 13.4% Unemployment falls another 23.6% Congress creates the reconstruction finance corporation Congress passes the federal home loan bank act Congress passes the glass steagall act of 1932 1933 Roosevelt inaugurated Third banking panic occurs Congress passes the Emergency Banking Bill,The farm credit Act,and National Industrial Recovery Act 1934 Gnp rises 7.7% Unemployment falls 21.7% 1935 GNP rises 8.1% Unemployment falls 20.1% 1936 GNP rises 14.1% Unemployment falls to 16.9% American History Essays
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Starbucks, one of the most well-known coffee shops in the world has experienced dramatic growth since the first store opened in 1971. After rising to dominance in its market Starbucks currently operates in 61 different countries with just under 17,000 stores worldwide. Recently the management team have been under severe scrutiny as the organisation has been accused of avoiding tax. An investigation conducted by Reuters discovered the company had paid only ? 8. 6 million in corporation tax since launching in the UK 14 years ago, even though cumulative sales of ? billion have been achieved. Despite the contrary the Starbucks PR team have fought back stating that they paid the correct level of taxes in the UK. (Neville and Malik 2012) An Ethical Dilemma in a Business Context Crane and Matten (2010) state business ethics is the study of business situations, activities, and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed. Considering this definition of business ethics it can be co ncluded that the StarbuckÃ¢â¬â¢s management team have found themselves in an ethical dilemma in a business context. We will write a custom essay sample on Starbucks Ethical Dilemma or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As reported by Neville and Malik (2012) Margaret Hodge chair of the Parliamentary Committee stated that she thought it was right for customers to boycott the companies that had been avoiding tax payments. Furthermore when addressing the Chief Financial Officer of Starbucks over the matter she said Ã¢â¬ËWeÃ¢â¬â¢re not accusing you of being illegal, weÃ¢â¬â¢re accusing you of being immoral. Ã¢â¬Ë Morality is concerned with the norms, values and beliefs embedded in the social processes which define right and wrong for an individual or a community as defined by Crane and Matten (2010) Coupling the morality definition and the statement from Margaret Hodge accusing the Chief Financial Officer of being immoral it can be argued that for businesses operating in the UK it is wrong and unacceptable not to pay the necessary taxes. Thomas Jones (1991) pioneered the idea of moral intensity and proposed it as way of expanding ethical decision-making models in relation to the importance of the issue, and the method decision-makers utilise when faced with ethical dilemmas. Considering the six factors that influence the intensity of a moral issue it could be seen that the moral intensity is high in this dilemma. The direct action group UK Uncut are extremely dissatisfied with the tax avoidance as funding for refuges and rape crisis centres faced cuts unless companies paid their fair share of tax. Sarah Greene an activist stated they plan to boycott Starbucks in the near future. HMRC estimated around ? 32 billion was lost in tax avoidance last year alone. (Neville and Malik 2012) As reported by Ebrahimmi (2012) Margaret Hodge stated that tax avoidance is unfair on hard working honest UK tax payers resulting in overseas companies gaining an unfair competitive advantage over UK companies; this then has a negative impact on the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ Chief Financial Office admitted that he had a secret signed deal with the Netherlands government where the Starbucks European headquarters is located. Solutions The StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ CEO has to compile a solution to the dilemma that will minimise the effect on the brand, and ensure that customers that were once loyal to the brand donÃ¢â¬â¢t vote with their feet and transfer to a competitor. A principle that must be followed is that ultimately the customer is always right. Analysing the information available it could be argued that the decision makers within Starbucks have acted in an indefensible manner. This is therefore crucial when deciding on a solution. The Stakeholder view established by Freeman (1984) concludes that corporations should serve a variety of stakeholders. Whereas the Shareholder view established by Friedman (1970) concludes that managers should maximise profit. Considering these two views it can be concluded that the StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ management have been operating under the Shareholder philosophy. Furthermore to this point it could be stated that the theory Egoism is relevant as StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making team have committed to activities that better the business and havenÃ¢â¬â¢t considered the consequences. Crane and Matten (2010) state an action is morally right if the decision-maker freely decides to pursue either their desires or interests following the egoism theory. Businesses should act ethically and be seen from a customer perspective to be acting in an ethical manner. Components of business ethics management are elements such as mission statements and codes of ethics. Throughout current business activities StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ management team have not followed their mission statement with regards to their coffee as it states: Ã¢â¬ËIt has always been, and will always be, about quality. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re passionate about ethically sourcing the finest coffee beans, roasting them with great care, and improving the lives of people who grow them. We care deeply about all of this; our work is never done. Ã¢â¬â¢ (http://starbucks. co. uk/about-us/company-information/mission-statement) Considering of all the above characteristics of the dilemma I think it is essential for the StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ management team to choose a solution which will recover the brand name. Shrivastava and Simokos (1989) established four basic responses that companies can take in a crisis; a super effort, voluntary compliance, forced regulatory compliance and denial as demonstrated in the diagram below. (Vassilikopoulou, Siomkos, Chatzipanagiotou, and Pantouvakis 2009) Analysing each of the actions I believe that the most beneficial option for the brand is a Ã¢â¬Ësuper effortÃ¢â¬â¢. Shrivastava and Simokos (1989) state that this action can lead to a speedy recovery of lost business. The Chief Financial Officer could therefore discuss and negotiate with the National Treasury and try and reach an agreement with regards to the potential amount of tax that has been avoided. The decision to pay back tax has been reached as the CEO has been forced and pressured into it. The CEO therefore needs to show the brands credentials and true business ethos, and prove that elements such as the mission statement arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just hollow empty words. This could be done by investing in improving working conditions and the infrastructure in the less developed countries that provide the corporation with coffee beans. The investment could be calculated on a ratio basis: for every five million that is paid back in tax one million is invested into developing areas less privileged. This campaign will recover the brand name. The StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ management team will then have to develop a communication plan that identifies the key stakeholders, their information needs and how these can be filled. (Shrivastava and Simokos 1989) Time is also a crucial factor before implementing the chosen solution as Standrop (2006) identified that the more time that elapses between the crisis occurring and the companies action the harder it is for company customer trust again.