Sunday, January 12, 2020

Honda Motor Company Ltd. Essay

How does Mr. Honda’s history with suppliers relate to Honda’s current supply management strategy? Honda’s current supply management strategy is consistent with Mr. Honda’s history. There three factors about Honda’s supply management strategy, focus on local market, emphasis on competition and reliable suppliers. According to the Honda’s export strategy of â€Å"Honda and U.S. – Japan Automotive Trade†(1997), it is clearly that Honda focuses on regional markets which contributes to developing more sales, strong research and better development. And their strategy of manufacturing the products where or near to where they are sold is the result of their being local strategy. Additionally, focus on local market benefits not only Honda but also the local government. Taking the US market as an example, on one hand, â€Å"Honda’s commitment to global trade and the positive benefits that result for U.S. jobs, suppliers, consumers and exports.† On the other hand, when the government benefits from Honda, it is easier for Honda to develop in the future. The other one is that Honda always emphasizes the competition of globalization. And during the intense competition, finding reliable suppliers to ensure and advance the quality of production is very important. Being globalization is the corollary goal if one company wants to make more benefit. And reliable suppliers are of great significance for company. This is the foundation of being on time as well as having good quality. Furthermore, Honda’s suppliers are able to be involved in the development process to give suggestion and have negotiation with Honda. In this way, Honda has access to know how to make it better and faster. Why is purchasing so important at Honda? Purchasing is important to Honda because of its strategy to be globalization. As Honda is a transnational corporation, it is very important to know the different policy, culture and environment in different local places in order to producing saving, managing contracts effectively and maintaining productive supplier relationships. Effective supply chain management depends on material availability, purchase volume, product cost and types of materials. As there thousands of parts in a car, sometimes materials should be bought from all over the world to reduce cost. Purchasing ensures the lowest price with good quality. And with communication as well as  negotiation to the suppliers, it is possible to make all the products to be produced on time with lower cost which is very important. Additionally, purchasing takes what kind of contract is the best into consideration which contributes to managing contracts effectively. Due to the different environment in every location, an appropriate type of contract benefits Honda and suppliers at the same time. Furthermore, as mentioned above, Honda pays a lot attention to the relationship with suppliers. One of the important part of purchasing is negotiating with the suppliers. With good negotiation and communication, it not only increases the chance of getting better deal but also contributes to establishing positive relationship with suppliers. How does purchasing rank in the corporate structure at Honda? Purchasing ranks highly in the corporate structure at Honda. It is in charge of local purchasing which decides the local suppliers as well as the global source. Besides, it has the option of adding a second source of supply. How is Honda organized globally? How does this help/hinder the purchasing function at Honda? Honda has lead automotive exporter which increase the buying and selling power for Honda. Honda focus on the localization as well as globalization which neutralizes the effect of currency rate. However, it also causes some problems such as at the beginning it is hard to coordinate between the local and the global. But this problem has been solved when the international purchasing department strengthen its macro-control of the local and global purchasing. Honda is sensitive to international requirements which means it takes advantages as well as create opportunities with local government. Since 1986 the MOSS came out, Honda created thousands of job opportunities in US and in turn it gets a lot benefit. What are the key elements of Honda’s supplier evaluation policy? How does it differ from others (e.g. the Big Three)? Suppliers are able to be involved in the product development to some degree. Different from others which control everything during purchasing and the suppliers are just responsible for supplying products as what is in the contract, Honda’s suppliers are able to offer advice about enhancing the efficiency which facilitate the cooperation as well as the products. In other words, Honda and its suppliers are mutually-beneficial cooperation rather than Honda just relies on suppliers. Continuous development and responsiveness of suppliers at the early age of product development process is critically important. â €Å"Honda tries to  encourage suppliers’ suggestions early before finalizing drawings, particularly in the area of cost reduction and quality improvement.† Honda always tries to maintain relationship with suppliers. It is hard to communicate effectively in Honda’s four trade zone but Honda always pays attention to it. As Mr. Morita says, â€Å"Honda places value on maintaining relationships, so we do not enter into them lightly.† Different from companies which focus on the immediate benefit of low cost rather than long-term benefits of maintaining relationship, Honda values suppliers and tries best to maintain good relationship with suppliers which turns out to be a very economical strategy. Because changing suppliers or having problems with current suppliers always takes a lot of time and money of fix it. What is Honda’s policy on new product development and supplier involvement? How does it differ from other automotive companies? Honda’s policy on new product development and supplier involvement includes two pars: Pacific Automotive Cooperative since 1986 and Re-assigned Pacific Automotive Cooperative since 1995. The former one was signed by Japanese and American government which required companies to report all of their import and localization volumes. The latter one consisted of 32 shareholders from joint venture composed of Japanese automakers which was established to meet political objecti ve for production in North America. Both of the policies emphasize on the involvement and cooperation of suppliers. Different from other automotive companies, suppliers of Honda have access to have knowledge of product development process and to offer suggestion which enhance the relationship between Honda and suppliers as well as promote the production efficiency. Honda’s culture have always emphasized globalization. Honda cultivated an international background at a very early age resulting in getting along with suppliers well. Conversely, Nissan and Toyota primarily exported vehicles, and did not develop this international culture. Does Honda support local sourcing from domestic suppliers? What are the advantages / disadvantages of this approach? Yes, Honda strongly supports local sourcing from domestic suppliers. Advantages: Firstly, it is easier for Honda to create and develop domestic market with domestic suppliers which understand customer culture and market better than Honda itself. Secondly, domestic suppliers decrease the cost of time and  money to distribute and produce. Thirdly, as there may be several domestic suppliers, so Honda has more options to choose the best one. And additionally,, domestic suppliers lower the risk of discontinuousness. Disadvantages: At the beginning of purchasing, domestic suppliers may be lacking in specific raw materials or components. And furthermore, how to adjust the domestic suppliers with global market is very important. Honda’s policy and commit to long-term relationships has been criticized as being â€Å"too loyal†, and Honda will go to â€Å"ridiculous lengths† to maintain a supplier relationship before severing ties. What do you think about these criticisms? Although Honda’s policy is criticized, in my opinion, it is still of great significance. When choosing suppliers, quality of products they supply compared with the cost and delivery fee are the most important factors. If the suppliers were able to satisfy these requirements, there is no need to change suppliers. Additionally, Honda keeps increasing the relationship with suppliers by involving them into the product development process, which benefits both Honda and suppliers. Stable and long-term relationship doesn†™t equal ridiculous lengths. With efforts, it is one way to increase the quality of suppliers.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Mission in Burundi South Africas Voice of Solidarity

Course: The South in World Politics: a Parallel World in the Making? Mission in Burundi: South Africa’s voice of solidarity INTRODUCTION In 1993 Nelson Mandela defined the issue of human rights, respect for diversity, cooperation in regional construction, infrastructure and resource development projects, concerns and interest of the continent of Africa to be the pillars of the foreign policy of South Africa (Mandela 1993). The essay will define what mediation is, what the peace process phases, will briefly describe the essence of the Tutsi-Hutu conflict in Burundi, will demonstrate how South Africa fulfilled its taken ‘obligations’ in the Burundi peace mission from 1999-2005 as a mediator, and will conclude when the mediation can be considered successful. BACKGROUND INFORMATION â€Å"Mediation is a process in which a third party attempts to resolve a conflict by fostering an agreement acceptable to both sides, without any prior acceptance or commitment by the parties to the conflict of the mediators ideas or suggestions† (Ayres, 1997). â€Å"Third parties mediate based on their desire to make peace, and their own self-interest. Self-interest is the primary motivation for states. States are motivated by both defensive and offensive interests† (ZartmanTouval 1996). Mediation per se intervention in the long-term Burundi peace process (1993-2005) involved many international actors and had the following milestones: the initial intercession by the UN SpecialShow MoreRelatedNotes18856 Words   |  76 PagesColonialism and the African Experience Virtually everything that has gone wrong in Africa since the advent of independence has been blamed on the legacies of colonialism. Is that fair? Virtually all colonial powers had â€Å"colonial missions.† What were these missions and why were they apparently such a disaster? Did any good come out of the African â€Å"colonial experience†? Introduction Colonization of Africa by European countries was a monumental milestone in  ­ the development of Africa. The

Friday, December 27, 2019

1)When You Developed Your Research Proposal, What Did You

1) When you developed your research proposal, what did you think Happy Dogs’ research need was? a. What was the problem they faced? What information did you think they needed to address it and improve their HRM practices? In my proposal, I identified minor objectives relating to retention. I then identified that all of these objectives had the verb ‘identify’ or a synonym of the verb. This led me to the problem of, and research needs relating to ‘unknown cause of walker retention’. I conveyed the information needed within the problem itself, as the ‘cause’ of walker retention. I believe this information would address the problem, and improve on organisational practices by identifying their current core HR rigidity. b. How did you think†¦show more content†¦3) Interpret Megan’s feedback. a. What does Megan’s feedback tell you about how you could improve the way you defined Happy Dogs’ research need and the information they need to address their problem? Megan’s feedback elaborated on my lack of systematic ‘what, who and how’ of various aspects, including my definition of Happy Dogs’ research need(s). From my interpretation, I could improve the way I define the problem by incorporating, what the research problems is (and affects), who the research problem impacts (and who can help resolve the problem), and how the research problem can be resolved. b. What does Megan’s feedback tell you about how you could improve the way you designed or explained your research design to get them the information they need? Implementing an overview of my research design would convey a ‘big picture’ to the audience. 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This qualitative research is intended to answer the following question: â€Å"How well did the UN XXX Program prepare you for the current position you hold in your organization?† Although this project is intended to serve as a form of self-contained research, it is conceivable that the results of this project may lead to the creation of additional sources of data such as employer focusRead MoreHow The Design Process Operates When Dealing With Customers1463 Words   |  6 PagesAssignment brief – QCF BTEC Assignment 1 front sheet Qualification Unit number and title BTEC Ext Diploma in Electrical Electronic Engineering Unit 08: Engineering Design Learner name Assessor name Westley Broughton Andrew Molyneux Date issued Hand in deadline Submitted on 17/09/2015 Assignment title Investigate how the design process operates when dealing with customers (1) In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Overpopulation Environmental And Social Problems

Throughout many years, the Earth has been a sustainable resource that humans have taken advantage of and been nourished by during evolution. Humans consider one of their main goals to reproduce and populate the Earth. As shown in the graph by World Bank , the world population as of 2013, is estimated to be over 7.1 billion. This is the result of exponential growth from previous years. This massive populations have effects on our resources, causes social problems, overcrowds areas, and effects other species. Earth is hitting the maximum capacity that it can handle. â€Å"Human population is growing like never before. We are now adding one billion people to the planet every 12 years. That s about 220,000 per day† (â€Å"Overpopulation: Environmental and Social Problems,† para.1). As more people are kept alive and the reproduction trend continues, it results in too many people being on Earth at the same time. This phenomena is referred to as overpopulation, and will be the focus of the paper. Overpopulation is defined as â€Å"the condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a population crash.† by Merriam-Webster. One of the causes of overpopulation is lower morality rates and advances in medicine. The many technological advances that have been made recently are resulting in doctors and medical facilities to be able to care for people in ways that they hadn’t been cared for before causing them to live longer.Show MoreRelatedThe Population Of The Planet Is Reaching Unsustainable1377 Words   |  6 Pagesexpansion in less developed and developing countries is straining the already scarce resources. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Education Research Perspectives

Question: Discuss about the Education Research Perspectives ? Answer : Introducation: Education research refers to scientific study through defined methods for examining the hypothesis and its learning processes through interactions, structure, and framework. The research provides a space for the trans-disciplinary, debates, and peer-reviews on the practice, theory and policy (Punch Oancea, 2014). However, research may be about working towards fairness, justice, and openness in any concept. Education research holds the full spectrum of arduous methods suitable for the questions being asked also helps for the development of new approaches and tools. The research is basically based on two theories viz., problem-solving theory and critical theory (Talbot-Smith, 2013). Importance Research helps to add knowledge to the educators when they undertook research based on the existing information and attempted to fulfil the current knowledge gap. Education research helps in promoting improvement for practice, as equipped research results assist in becoming more capable professionals. It helps the practitioners for evaluation of approaches which will contribute to work with other individuals in educational institutions (Gagnon Bumpus, 2016). Apart from supporting educators in becoming better professionals, it also provides the information to the policy makers during debate and research on educational topics. When policy makers read the research questions, which are related to current discussions and stances taken by the other public officials . Validation Questionnaires often arise in the educational research, which is needed to be validated. Proper validation of the research should be done by collecting the validity evidence for the correctness of the uses, decisions and interpretation of the assessed results. The major constraint towards solving complex problems is the lack of interdisciplinary validity (Gagnon Bumpus, 2016). The steps involved in education research validation includes (1) expert panel review (formative), (2) feasibility of items, (3) field testing, and (4) expert panel review (summative). Note that the methods used can be either original in terms of information elucidation or can be based on secondary research, but the validation process remains same in both measures (Punch Oancea, 2014). Perspectives Perspectives is an important impact factor in the education research field. The increase in views will help to entice more researchers and supports for their publications. The education research involves the opening of newer vision, improved methods, and lesson based on evidence from research reports for increasing the effectiveness in practice (Jose, Patrick Moseley, 2017). Problems Despite its importance, the present research also shows several challenges as the results found shows contradictory findings. Another problem is related to the issue of questionable data, as there is a chance of a dismally small number of participants which can cause a problem in concluding an appropriate statistical result (Jose, Patrick Moseley, 2017). Even if the research published in a good journal does not make sense for good research, until the statistics choose for analysis, the data is appropriate. Conclusion Despite the importance, it is important to note that educational research has a limitation, especially in terms of limited use of research by teachers. The reason is mainly attributed to lack of access to academic journals, a daunting amount of research, overly theoretical orientation, and distrust of findings. Thus, it should be the policy reform approach, with which the educational research and its trend across educational settings can be transformed into a positive direction. References: Gagnon, R. J., Bumpus, M. F. (2016). Fidelity and its importance to experiential and outdoor education.Journal of Outdoor Recreation,8(1), 10-25. Jose, S., Patrick, P. G., Moseley, C. (2017). Experiential learning theory: the importance of outdoor classrooms in environmental education.International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 1-16. Punch, K. F., Oancea, A. (2014).Introduction to research methods in education. Sage. Talbot-Smith, M., Abell, S. K., Appleton, K., Hanuscin, D. L. (Eds.). (2013).Handbook of research on science education. Routledge.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Great Depression Essays (449 words) - Financial Crises

The Great Depression THE GREAT DEPRESSION The year of 1929 began a time period of horror in America. It was the beginning of the great depression. A time in which many lost their jobs,became homeless,and went hungry. Many people had to live off the nutrition of weeds or some worked fifty - five hours and only earned seventy - five cents. The cause of the depression was the stock market crash of 1929 known to investors as Black Tuesday. Black Tuesday is said to be the most shocking financial event in the history of the united states. Not only did the stock market prices drop drastically but the business world was brought down with it. Inflation also rose because of the crash. The crash that occurred on October of 1929 caused Americans to lose Thirty billion dollars,and the American dollar value was 90% less than it was prior to October of 1929. Wholesale and retail food prices dropped 40% and farm prices dropped over 60%. About four million families were left unemployed and on relief support only receiving fifteen dollars a month. Because of the crash the government was required to set new regulations regarding stock market trade. The reason for this was to attempt to prevent another stock market crash from happening in the future. The depression brought about many problems not only did people have to worry about unemployment they also had to worry about crime. Many Americans tried to get easy money by taking part in robberies,kidnappings,and murders. In 1935 criminals out numbered carpenters four to one, grocers six to one, and doctors twenty to one. In the mid west, crooks with shot guns and Tommy Gun were a common thing. In large cities the criminals were making money off of extortion,prositution and auto theft. GREAT DEPRESSION TIMELINE 1929 Herbert Hoover became president Stock market crash begins on October 24 investors call October 29 Black Tuesday Losses for the month are sixteen billion congress passes Agricultural Marketing Act to support farmers until they can get on their feet 1930 By February, Federal Reserve cut prime interest rate 6% to 4% The smoot-Hawley Tariff passes on June 17 Democrats gain in congressional elections but still don't have majority The GNP fails 9.4% and unemployment rate climbs 3.2% to 8.7% 1931 A second banking panic occurs in the spring The GNP falls another 8.5% Unemployment rises to 15.9% 1932 This year and next year are the worst of the depression GNP falls a record 13.4% Unemployment falls another 23.6% Congress creates the reconstruction finance corporation Congress passes the federal home loan bank act Congress passes the glass steagall act of 1932 1933 Roosevelt inaugurated Third banking panic occurs Congress passes the Emergency Banking Bill,The farm credit Act,and National Industrial Recovery Act 1934 Gnp rises 7.7% Unemployment falls 21.7% 1935 GNP rises 8.1% Unemployment falls 20.1% 1936 GNP rises 14.1% Unemployment falls to 16.9% American History Essays

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Starbucks Ethical Dilemma free essay sample

Starbucks, one of the most well-known coffee shops in the world has experienced dramatic growth since the first store opened in 1971. After rising to dominance in its market Starbucks currently operates in 61 different countries with just under 17,000 stores worldwide. Recently the management team have been under severe scrutiny as the organisation has been accused of avoiding tax. An investigation conducted by Reuters discovered the company had paid only ? 8. 6 million in corporation tax since launching in the UK 14 years ago, even though cumulative sales of ? billion have been achieved. Despite the contrary the Starbucks PR team have fought back stating that they paid the correct level of taxes in the UK. (Neville and Malik 2012) An Ethical Dilemma in a Business Context Crane and Matten (2010) state business ethics is the study of business situations, activities, and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed. Considering this definition of business ethics it can be co ncluded that the Starbuck’s management team have found themselves in an ethical dilemma in a business context. We will write a custom essay sample on Starbucks Ethical Dilemma or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As reported by Neville and Malik (2012) Margaret Hodge chair of the Parliamentary Committee stated that she thought it was right for customers to boycott the companies that had been avoiding tax payments. Furthermore when addressing the Chief Financial Officer of Starbucks over the matter she said ‘We’re not accusing you of being illegal, we’re accusing you of being immoral. ‘ Morality is concerned with the norms, values and beliefs embedded in the social processes which define right and wrong for an individual or a community as defined by Crane and Matten (2010) Coupling the morality definition and the statement from Margaret Hodge accusing the Chief Financial Officer of being immoral it can be argued that for businesses operating in the UK it is wrong and unacceptable not to pay the necessary taxes. Thomas Jones (1991) pioneered the idea of moral intensity and proposed it as way of expanding ethical decision-making models in relation to the importance of the issue, and the method decision-makers utilise when faced with ethical dilemmas. Considering the six factors that influence the intensity of a moral issue it could be seen that the moral intensity is high in this dilemma. The direct action group UK Uncut are extremely dissatisfied with the tax avoidance as funding for refuges and rape crisis centres faced cuts unless companies paid their fair share of tax. Sarah Greene an activist stated they plan to boycott Starbucks in the near future. HMRC estimated around ? 32 billion was lost in tax avoidance last year alone. (Neville and Malik 2012) As reported by Ebrahimmi (2012) Margaret Hodge stated that tax avoidance is unfair on hard working honest UK tax payers resulting in overseas companies gaining an unfair competitive advantage over UK companies; this then has a negative impact on the UK’s economic growth. Starbucks’ Chief Financial Office admitted that he had a secret signed deal with the Netherlands government where the Starbucks European headquarters is located. Solutions The Starbucks’ CEO has to compile a solution to the dilemma that will minimise the effect on the brand, and ensure that customers that were once loyal to the brand don’t vote with their feet and transfer to a competitor. A principle that must be followed is that ultimately the customer is always right. Analysing the information available it could be argued that the decision makers within Starbucks have acted in an indefensible manner. This is therefore crucial when deciding on a solution. The Stakeholder view established by Freeman (1984) concludes that corporations should serve a variety of stakeholders. Whereas the Shareholder view established by Friedman (1970) concludes that managers should maximise profit. Considering these two views it can be concluded that the Starbucks’ management have been operating under the Shareholder philosophy. Furthermore to this point it could be stated that the theory Egoism is relevant as Starbucks’ decision-making team have committed to activities that better the business and haven’t considered the consequences. Crane and Matten (2010) state an action is morally right if the decision-maker freely decides to pursue either their desires or interests following the egoism theory. Businesses should act ethically and be seen from a customer perspective to be acting in an ethical manner. Components of business ethics management are elements such as mission statements and codes of ethics. Throughout current business activities Starbucks’ management team have not followed their mission statement with regards to their coffee as it states: ‘It has always been, and will always be, about quality. We’re passionate about ethically sourcing the finest coffee beans, roasting them with great care, and improving the lives of people who grow them. We care deeply about all of this; our work is never done. ’ (http://starbucks. co. uk/about-us/company-information/mission-statement) Considering of all the above characteristics of the dilemma I think it is essential for the Starbucks’ management team to choose a solution which will recover the brand name. Shrivastava and Simokos (1989) established four basic responses that companies can take in a crisis; a super effort, voluntary compliance, forced regulatory compliance and denial as demonstrated in the diagram below. (Vassilikopoulou, Siomkos, Chatzipanagiotou, and Pantouvakis 2009) Analysing each of the actions I believe that the most beneficial option for the brand is a ‘super effort’. Shrivastava and Simokos (1989) state that this action can lead to a speedy recovery of lost business. The Chief Financial Officer could therefore discuss and negotiate with the National Treasury and try and reach an agreement with regards to the potential amount of tax that has been avoided. The decision to pay back tax has been reached as the CEO has been forced and pressured into it. The CEO therefore needs to show the brands credentials and true business ethos, and prove that elements such as the mission statement aren’t just hollow empty words. This could be done by investing in improving working conditions and the infrastructure in the less developed countries that provide the corporation with coffee beans. The investment could be calculated on a ratio basis: for every five million that is paid back in tax one million is invested into developing areas less privileged. This campaign will recover the brand name. The Starbucks’ management team will then have to develop a communication plan that identifies the key stakeholders, their information needs and how these can be filled. (Shrivastava and Simokos 1989) Time is also a crucial factor before implementing the chosen solution as Standrop (2006) identified that the more time that elapses between the crisis occurring and the companies action the harder it is for company customer trust again.